Search Resources (English): Female genital mutilation

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Female genital mutilation and health care: current situation and legal status. Recommendations to improve the health care of af

Describes the current status of this cultural practice that occurs around the world, its legal status in Canada as well as in most Western countries, and provides recommendations to improve the health care of affected women.

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Published: 2000
Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation/cutting

Examines the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and its social dynamics. Provides an explanation as to why the practice persists and of the elements necessary for its abandonment.

Published: 2005
What's "normal": female genital mutilation, psychology, and body image

Focuses on the psychological effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) through the example of a patient who had undergone the procedure in childhood and now felt that her closed appearance was "normal" and that to be opened would be "abnormal." Argues that Western advocates must educate themselves about the various cultural forces that lead to FGM in order to help women who have undergone the procedure heal psychologically, thereby breaking the pattern of abuse from generation to generation.

Published: 2004
Female genital mutilation

Presents the International Confederation of Midwives' position statement regarding female genital mutilation. PDF required to read.

Published: 1999
Female genital cutting: breaking the silence, enabling change

Examines the occurence of female genital cutting (FGC), common rationales for its practice, and its prevalence. Explores efforts to eliminate the practice within the context of an emerging human rights framework. Provides a synopsis of three strategies in Egypt, The Gambia, and Senegal to end FGC, their methods and results. Makes recommendations on how practitioners, donors, and policy makers can best enable communities to abandon the practice of female genital cutting.

 (See Details)
Published: 2000
Female genital mutilation

Defines female genital mutilation (FGM). Describes the possible health consequences of FGM, who performs FGM, at what age and for what reasons, and the prevalance and distribution of FGM. Presents current WHO acitivities related to FGM.

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Published: 2000
The process of changed meanings: a study of the Canadian experience of Somali women in the Kitchener-Waterloo area in regard to
Presents a thesis that tracks the process of changed meanings using the narrative research method. Through the fictitous story of a Somali woman named Mary who immigrates to the Kitchener-Waterloo area, this paper acts as a guide to other women in the process of transition. The story deals with the issues she has to face in her transition, with Female circumcision the central issue. It deals specifically with the change in thought process that women go through as they move from a country that supports female circumcision to a country that calls this practice female genital mutilation. This story was create through a composite of individual experiences of women who have had to confront FGM.
Published: 1995
Regional plan of action to accelerate the elimination of female genital mutilation in Africa
Provides a borad strategy to support and coordinate the planning of implementation of country activities for the prevention and elimination not only of female genital mutilation (FGM), but also of other harmful traditional practices that affect the health of women and children in Africa.
Published: 1997
Female genital mutilation: report on consultations held in Ottawa and Montreal
Describes the consultations that were undertaken in Ottawa and Montreal with members of communities in which FGM is a traditional practice. The purpose of the consultations was to discuss the most appropriate way in which to educate members of the community on the following issues surrounding FGM: the application of Canadian laws, health risks, and cultural/religious issues. The individuals from Montreal came from 14 ethnic communities while at the Ottawa consultations, the focus was on the Somali community. This paper also provides a list of recommendations from the consultations. (See Details)
Published: 1995
Female genital mutilation and obstetric care
Provides detailed instruction and recommendations to ensure quality, sensitive and culturally appropriate prenatal care, and birth and post-partum care, for women who have experienced FGM.
Published: 2003